Thursday, September 22, 2011

tonit, tunit

  • In tonal languages (such as mandarin), tone is lexical, meaning that (a)a  tone is associated with a segment and that (b) a change in the tone of the segment changes the meaning of the word. This is called a"tone unit (tonit)" (cf. Charles-James N. Bailey).  Pitch accent languages fall in the same category.
  • In intonational languages (like English), the tone is suprasegmental, meaning that tone spreads across segments. This is called a "tune unit (tunit)"

C-J.N Bailey Intonation:
  • tunit =  anacruis (which exists in the first tunit) + head + tail
  • tunit + tunit + tunit  = anacrusis + head + tail + head + tail  + head + tail
  • cadence, a concept is abused by the naive in dialect training =  the tail of the tune
  • tunit = precadence + cadence
  • the head of a tunit =  a stressed syllable of a focus [ +focus] word
  • stressed syllables of [-focus] words are NOT tunit heads.
  • the anacrutic tone: mid-toned (neutral); otherwise, low or high tone
  • check

Discourse Intonation

  • Tone units, similar to tunits above.
  • tone unit = proclictic segment + tonic segment + enclictic segment
  • tonic segment =  1 or 2 prominent syllables
  • in 2-prominent syl tone unit = onset (1st prom. syl) + tonic syl (pitch change or tone) (TOBI pitch accent fits the tonic syl)
  • proclictic, enclitic segments = no prom. syl
  • unique to DI = sub-components in tone units (prominence, tone, key, termination) and speaker options
  • prominence sub-system: " Where the speaker chooses to say something he believes the hearer cannot take for granted from the existential paradigm, he makes it prominent. Whenever this paradigm is reduced to a choice of one however, the item becomes non-prominent."

British School:

  • tone unit = pre-head  + head + tonic syl + tail
  • pre-head = all unstressed syl preceding the first stressed syl
  • head = part of a tone unit that extends from the first syl up to (not including) the tonic syl
  • tail = any syl b/w the tonic syl and the end of the tone unit
Luciano Canepari:
  • intonation group = pre-intoneme + intoneme
  • intoneme = pretonic syl + tonic syl + one or two posttonic syl
  • preintoneme = one or more stressed (protonic) and unstressed syl (intertonic)
  • preintoneme = antetonic + 1st pro + 1st  inter + pro + inter + last  pro +  last inter 
  • antetonic = initial unstressed syl
  • intertonic = unstressed syl
  • protonic/tonic = stressed syl

Same at

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